5:11 | Marshall Eubanks had two years left to serve when he returned from Vietnam. He stuck around for ten, then he decided to keep going. Instead of flying helicopters, he worked on high level research and simulations, among other things.
Keywords : Marshall Eubanks 1st Infantry Division Germany Reforger Fort Riley University of Florida Fort Lee research 7th Engineering Brigade 565th Engineer Battalion US Central Command White Sands Proving Grounds
Marshall Eubanks was determined to go to Vietnam. He felt personally called to duty after going to college during the turbulent sixties. Also, his father, who was a career military man, had died there. He went to flight school in his senior year of ROTC and, after graduation, became a helicopter pilot.
The Mekong Delta was hot and it smelled peculiar, especially where the locals were making their fish sauce. Marshall Eubanks was a Huey pilot who arrived there late in the war. There were a lot of river tributaries and canals and the villages were often built on poles.
By the end of 1971, all US combat troops were gone from the Mekong Delta area, but helicopter pilot Marshall Eubanks was kept busy transporting ARVN troops. The procedure was to hover just above the tall grass and the men would jump out. There was no way to know how far down the ground actually was, so sometimes thy didn't want to go.
The 114th Assault Helicopter Company was based at a small airfield in Vinh Long. Huey pilot Marshall Eubanks was sometimes officer of the guard for night time security, not a lot of fun. Neither was it fun to thoroughly clean all the aircraft when the unit had to stand down and prepare for return to the States. He didn't have enough time in country to leave, so he went to another outfit.
The monsoon weather was awful but Huey Pilot Marshall Eubanks flew right through it. He had to fly low enough to watch the ground beneath him until he got through the storm. That was scary enough. Then there were night assaults that were lit up by spotlights, which made you a sitting duck.
Flying out of Can Tho, helicopter pilot Marshall Eubanks supported the American advisory teams in the Mekong Delta. Transport, supply Medevac, anything they needed. He also made runs to Cambodia to support the American embassy and, on one of these, he was treated to a feast at Angkor Wat.
Sometimes the advisors rubbed you the wrong way, but Marshall Eubanks recognized the bravery of the men who lived in the bush with ARVN units. The tiny outposts had to be supported constantly and he had a special maneuver for bringing his Huey down quick in a tight spiral to avoid ground fire.
Marshall Eubanks was a helicopter pilot in Vietnam when Jane Fonda was photographed at a North Vietnamese anti-aircraft battery. He and his comrades did not appreciate it then and they still do not appreciate it.
When you sat your chopper down in a village, the kids would gather to look at the aircraft and maybe get a handout. Huey pilot Marshall Eubanks noticed that the Vietnamese children always looked out for each other and the older ones would shepherd the younger ones. They seemed very independent and resilient.
Marshall Eubanks describes the immense power of the B-52 strikes that he witnessed. There couldn't have been much effect on the enemy, however, because the strikes were announced in advance to avoid civilian casualties. Vietnamese civilians could also easily become casualties if they ventured into a designated free fire zone.
It was a typical mission. Huey pilot Marshall Eubanks made three trips to resupply an ARVN outpost and on the third one he took a lot of ground fire. He didn't think much of it but, later, after he was home from his tour, he got word that he was requested at an award ceremony.
It was very late in the war but lives were still being lost. Helicopter pilot Marshall Eubanks remembers the deadly crash of a Chinook which sunk down into the Mekong mud. He nearly lost his own life on his last flight in Vietnam when his Huey developed engine trouble.
They were long days, those last few in country as Marshall Eubanks was waiting to leave Vietnam. He was ready to go home after twelve long months. When he got back to the States and his next assignment, he was surprised when he was told not to wear his uniform off base.
What should people remember about the Vietnam war? Marshall Eubanks thinks it's important you know that most of those who served there volunteered and that they stepped up for the same reasons volunteers do it today.
The rebuild of the 75th Ranger Regiment was underway at Fort Benning. Keith Nightingale was the headquarters company commander among other odd jobs. They were developing a new training regimen that was to be the finest anywhere. One important task was the creation of a Ranger Creed.
Operation Eagle Claw was the name of the attempt by US Special Forces to rescue the hostages from the embassy in Iran. The mission was aborted because of mechanical failures in helicopters and then turned tragic when eight men died in a fiery crash. Pilot George Ferkes was part of that team and he describes the events from his perspective.
After months of intense planning and training, Operation Eagle Claw commenced. Pilot Roland Guidry was on the first plane to arrive at Desert One, a remote rendezvous point in the Iranian desert. There, the mission would unravel, done in by mechanical malfunctions and worse.
It had been a long and tortuous process for Keith Nightingale and the rest of the joint task force but Operation Eagle Claw was ready. All the moving parts were primed and all that needed was for President Carter to give the word to go. Pt 4 of 4.
Bill Pearson had been to Vietnam twice and returned unscathed, but the Army wasn't done putting him in danger. He was assigned as an aviation consultant to Iran, advising the Shah's air force on it's supply of American aircraft. The day he arrived, martial law was declared and it wasn't long before there were mobs outside trying to burn down the building. The embassy was no help. Escape seemed impossible.
In the aftermath of the debacle at Desert One, an effort to plan and execute another mission to rescue the hostages in Iran got under way. Air Force special ops pilot George Ferkes recalls that new tactics and equipment were developed that served as the blueprint for the revitalization of special operations units throughout the military.
After the tragic events at Desert One, planning began for another rescue mission. Parallel with this was the decision to create a permanent and robust special operations structure. Keith Nightingale was right in the middle of this difficult effort which involved all the services.
From the beginning, Tom Fleming wanted to be a fighter pilot. He settled for a tour as a forward air controller in Vietnam and, after that, his quest for fighters continued as he embarked on a lengthy Air Force career. That career took him to Turkey, Germany, many stateside bases and the Pentagon, but it was Hawaii that was most satisfactory.
Delta Force and the Rangers had arrived at Desert One but the helicopters were delayed by a dust storm. Only five of them were deemed flyable when they got there and the mission requirements were for six. The mission was scrubbed until the next day and mission planner Keith Nightingale describes the tragic circumstances of the departure from the Iranian desert.
On his first operation, Green Beret Changiz Lahidji went to Afghanistan to help the Mujahideen fight the Russian occupiers. The Iranian embassy takeover led to the second, a daring solo mission into Iran, where he surveilled the embassy. He had to make it out on his own after the aborted rescue attempt. (Caution: strong language.)
As Operation Desert Shield gave way to Operation Desert Storm, the Pentagon needed someone like a fighter pilot to brief the Joint Chiefs and the Secretary of Defense on biological and chemical warfare in language they could understand. So, Tom Fleming became the "bugs and gas guy."
After a long stint with Joint Task Force Eagle Claw, Keith Nightingale left to command a battalion in the 82nd Airborne. This unit was called to be part of Operation Urgent Fury, the liberation of Grenada from a Communist takeover. Part 1 of 3.
Keith Nightingale was heading up post-invasion operations in Grenada when he got a packet of good intelligence on the leaders of the coup there. This aided him in locating and capturing Hudson Austin, who had been behind the Communist takeover. Part 4 of 4.
Operation Eagle Claw was a pivotal moment in Special Operations history. Unconventional warfare had been ignored after the Vietnam War and three veterans of that conflict, who were also deeply involved with the attempt to rescue the hostages in Iran, reveal the inside story of the planning and tragic outcome. George Ferkes, Roland Guidry and Keith Nightingale each offer a unique perspective on the events.
When he returned from Vietnam, George Ferkes is fairly sure he saw his old hooch burning on the television when Quang Tri fell. After a couple of years he leapt at the chance to join a special ops outfit, even though, at the time, there was little interest in those units.
No one could get Charles Beckwith to admit that Delta Force didn't have enough personnel to secure all the locations that would be needed for the rescue of the hostages in Iran. Keith Nightingale had to present three times the briefing that proved this. Finally, the Rangers were brought in to enhance the operation and training began in earnest. Part 3 of 4.
The plan was complicated, with a lot of moving parts, but there was high confidence that the team would be able to rescue the hostages in Iran. Pilot Roland Guidry describes how a combination of fixed wing aircraft and helicopters would deliver the Delta Force and the Rangers and then extract them along with the hostages. Part 3 of 4.
In the aftermath of the Grenada invasion, peacekeeping forces from all around the Caribbean were assembled to help keep order. Keith Nightingale's battalion was spread all around the island involved in various missions and the locals in all these enclaves helped their liberators celebrate Thanksgiving. Part 3 of 4.
Early in the planning for the rescue attempt of the hostages in Iran, it was decided that carrier based helicopters would be the key aircraft. They would rendezvous with fixed wing aircraft carrying personnel and fuel in the remote Iranian desert. Pilot Roland Guidry explains why a preliminary clandestine mission was required before planning could continue. Part 2 of 4.
The decimation of the Army was complete. The leadership had punted in Vietnam and there was no support among most of the public. Army Chief of Staff Creighton Abrams decided to rebuild the Army around a reborn Ranger Battalion, which would be built from the ground up as the finest light infantry in the world. Keith Nightingale found out about this and made sure he was in on it.
When Roland Guidry was given the command of the 8th Special Operations Squadron, he had to prove himself because he was not from a special ops background, per se. He did just fine. The missions he'd flown in Vietnam were perfect preparation. He says it takes a certain type of low key individual to excel at that type work.
When the Iranian Revolutionary Guard seized the American embassy, the joint chiefs began looking for the means to rescue the hostages. It was decided to build a team around Delta Force, the elite special ops unit led by Charles Beckwith. General James Vaught was selected as the overall commander of the operation and on his staff was Keith Nightingale, who was then immersed in the urgent planning process. Part 1 of 4.
The newly formed Joint Special Operations Command was beefing up the capabilities of all branches. One of the keys was the formation of SEAL Team 6. Over at the Air Force, Roland Guidry explains how they struggled to come up with the assets to succeed at their part of the plan. In the middle of all this, Grenada suddenly became a hot spot.
It's tough to be a Green Beret. Changiz has broken both legs and dislocated his shoulder, among other injuries. Even the extreme training is dangerous, like the high altitude parachute jumps for which he set a record. He spent time in Haiti and Grenada and was in Somalia when the Blackhawk Down incident occurred.
Keith Nightingale remembers that, during the buildup of the new Ranger Battalion, the team researched units from the past including British commandos and Vikings to extract any useful training techniques. Live fire exercises and road marches became very important. In December of 1974, the new Rangers were ready.
The Pentagon set up a commission to investigate Operation Eagle Claw, the failed attempt to rescue the hostages in Iran. Roland Guidry was the first chief of air operations at the newly formed Joint Special Operations Command, the organization created to deal with unconventional warfare in the future.
Clowns in action. That's how Keith Nightingale describes the confusion and snafus during the initial Grenada operation. Most objectives were quickly achieved but there were some difficult battles, including one with a Cuban unit. When the Rangers got to the medical school where American students were waiting, they found out about a second campus with more students. Part 2 of 3.